Chapter 2 Transmission and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis

Although a descriptive title like “The Prevention of Tuberculosis” orients the

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Developing a Thesis Statement and Outline - Texas

While cases of M. bovis isolation may be exceptionally rare among the hedgehogs of Britain, infection rates are higher elsewhere; in particular New Zealand. In a short paper to the New Zealand Veterinary Journal during 1995, Ian Lugton and colleagues report that 5% (4 of 79) of the hedgehog carcasses they examined tested positive for M. bovis. Based on earlier work by Chris Thorns and co-workers published in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology -- who, through experimental infection, established that hedgehogs could be non-lethally infected with M. bovis -- Lugton and colleagues suggested that hedgehogs may pick-up bTB infections while feeding on infected carrion and may then be a reservoir for the disease. Indeed, in her Masters thesis on tuberculosis in hedgehogs and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), Robyn Gorton notes that hedgehogs in New Zealand are “spill-over hosts” (i.e. populations in which infection will persist where a maintenance host is present in the ecosystem) for M. bovis. Thus, it seems that if bTB is present in a hedgehog population, it probably signifies that infected carrion is present somewhere in their range.

Tuberculosis (TB): WHO’s A-Z list of links to information on tuberculosis-related topics.

The material in this report originated in the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Kevin Fenton, MD, PhD, Director; and the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Kenneth G. Castro, MD, Director.

Developing a Thesis Statement and Outline ..


Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Visiting Nurse Association. Preliminary Report. Chicago 1903. Chicago: R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 1903. Tuberculosis is an acute health problem, particularly in the developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Tuberculosis has existed for many centuries. Specifically from 2000 B.C. tubercles have been found in mummified bodies. Reference to this disease has been found in written scriptures of Babylonia, Egypt, and China (Haas, 2000, p. 88). Most new cases of clinical tuberculosis arise in individuals who have been previously infected. The eradication of tuberculosis and its prevention depend upon the detection and prophylactic treatment of infected individuals so that clinical disease does not occur, and effective treatment of those with symptomatic clinical disease so that transmission of tuberculosis to others is prevented.Akivo Lenzner, an Estonian professor emeritus of the University of Tartu since 1993 and a well-known researcher of microbial ecology, passed away on 27th of April 2012 at the age of 85. Akivo Lenzner was of Jewish origin, was born in Tartu, and graduated from a high-level Estonian language gymnasium. His father Aron Lenzner had served as a doctor in the Estonian first independence war in 1918–1920. However, after graduating cum laude in 1951 from the Medical Faculty of the University of Tartu, Akivo Lenzner had to serve in the Soviet Army for 9 years as a microbiologist. Still, during that time, he succeeded to complete his thesis on tuberculosis meningitis for Cand. Medical Sciences and returned to Tartu in 1960. He got the Doctor of Sciences degree in 1973 and was elected as Professor of Microbiology in 1974. He led the Institute of Microbiology of the University of Tartu for more than 30 years. He taught microbiology to all medical doctors of Estonia for a very long time. Under his supervision, 14 theses of Cand. Medical Sciences were prepared. His research was closely associated with human microflora, particularly vaginal lactobacilli, with respect to health and disease. He has authored more than hundred publications, mainly in the Russian language.Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Visiting Nurse Association. Preliminary Report. Chicago 1903. Chicago: R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 1903. Chapter 1: Background 1.1. Motivation for the thesis and overview ………………………………………………….….. 1.2. The burden of tuberculosis ………………………………………………………………..… 1.2.1. Public health indicators …………………………………………….……………….. 1.2.2. Economic indicators …………………………………………….…………….…….. 1.2.3. The burden of illness ……………………………………………….…………….….. 1.3. The control of tuberculosis in the world ..……………………………………………………. 1.3.1 DOTS - the recommended control strategy... The material in this report originated in the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Kevin Fenton, MD, PhD, Director; and the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Kenneth G. Castro, MD, Director.Akivo Lenzner, an Estonian professor emeritus of the University of Tartu since 1993 and a well-known researcher of microbial ecology, passed away on 27th of April 2012 at the age of 85. Akivo Lenzner was of Jewish origin, was born in Tartu, and graduated from a high-level Estonian language gymnasium. His father Aron Lenzner had served as a doctor in the Estonian first independence war in 1918–1920. However, after graduating cum laude in 1951 from the Medical Faculty of the University of Tartu, Akivo Lenzner had to serve in the Soviet Army for 9 years as a microbiologist. Still, during that time, he succeeded to complete his thesis on tuberculosis meningitis for Cand. Medical Sciences and returned to Tartu in 1960. He got the Doctor of Sciences degree in 1973 and was elected as Professor of Microbiology in 1974. He led the Institute of Microbiology of the University of Tartu for more than 30 years. He taught microbiology to all medical doctors of Estonia for a very long time. Under his supervision, 14 theses of Cand. Medical Sciences were prepared. His research was closely associated with human microflora, particularly vaginal lactobacilli, with respect to health and disease. He has authored more than hundred publications, mainly in the Russian language.Chapter 1: Background 1.1. Motivation for the thesis and overview ………………………………………………….….. 1.2. The burden of tuberculosis ………………………………………………………………..… 1.2.1. Public health indicators …………………………………………….……………….. 1.2.2. Economic indicators …………………………………………….…………….…….. 1.2.3. The burden of illness ……………………………………………….…………….….. 1.3. The control of tuberculosis in the world ..……………………………………………………. 1.3.1 DOTS - the recommended control strategy...